Organic Radical Battery

ORBs(Organic Radical Battery) have been shown useful in keeping a computer running momentarily following a power outage. Although the amount of additional time provided is short, it is adequate to allow a computer to backup any crucial data before completely shutting down

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Detailed Description for Organic Radical Battery

         

            An organic radical battery (ORB) is a relatively new type of battery first developed in 2005.This type of battery is generally not available for the consumer, however their development is approaching practical use.ORBs are potentially more environmentally friendly than conventional metal-based batteries, because they use organic radical polymers, which are flexible plastics, instead of metals to provide electrical power. ORBs are considered to be a high-power alternative to the Li-ion battery.

                                                                

 

             The organic radical polymers used in ORBs are examples of stable radicals, which are stabilized resonance effects.For example, the nitroxide radical in oxyl (TEMPO), the most common subunit used in ORBs, is a stable oxygen-centered molecular radical. Here, the radical is stabilized by delocalization of electrons from the nitrogen onto the oxygen. TEMPO radicals can be attached to polymer backbones to form poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl- piperidenyloxyl-4-yl methacrylate) (PTMA). PTMA-based ORBs have a charge-density slightly higher than that of conventional Li-ion batteries, which should theoretically make it possible for an ORB to provide more charge than a Li-ion Battery of similar size and weight.

              Current ORB research is being directed mostly towards Hybrid ORB/Li-ion batteries because organic radical polymers with appropriate electrical properties for the anode are difficult to synthesize.      

 

                    

 

Function:

                Radical polymer batteries rely on a redox of an organic radical to generate an electro-chemical potential. The most studied example of such an organic radical redox reaction is that of nitroxide radicals, such as the one found on a molecule called oxyl, also known as TEMPO. A nitroxide radical can be oxidized to an oxammonium cation or reduced to a hydroxylamine anion.Redox chemistry of the TEMPO-group, which contains a nitroxide.

               Discharge and charge of a hybrid ORB/Li-ion battery. The positive terminal is an organic radical polymer carrying the tempo unit and the negative terminal is the same as found in a Li-ion battery

               The positive electrode uses the nitroxide - oxammonium cation redox pair to create an electro-chemical potential , ie. when the battery discharges the nitroxide radical is oxidized to the oxammonium cation and when the battery charges the oxammonium cation is reduced back to the nitroxide. The redox potentials for nitroxide show some variation and for the tempo nitroxide for this redox pair has an oxidation potential of +0.87 V. The positive electrode often takes the shape of a gel made of organic radical solids and graphite, permeated with electrolytes.Graphite is mixed with the polymer to increase the conductivity.

                                           

 

               The negative electrode uses the nitroxide - hydroxylamine anion redox pair to create an electrochemical potential, ie. when the battery discharges the nitroxide radical is reduced to the hydroxylamine anion and when the battery charges the hydroxylamine anion is oxidized back to the nitroxide. This half reaction has an oxidation potential of -0.11 V. Since this half reaction is not readily reversible as the half reaction at the positive electrode, several research groups have steered away from using pure organic radical batteries and instead use metal/ORB hybrid batteries usually consist of a radical polymer cathode and the same anode found in rechargeable Li-ion battery.

                 Much like a traditional battery such as a Li-ion battery, an organic radical battery consists of a cathode and an anode that are separated by a porous film and submerged in an electrolyte. In a pure organic radical battery, both terminals are made of organic radical polymers (a p-type and an n-type polymer), while a metal/ORB hybrid battery usually has a radical polymer cathode and a Li-ion/graphite anode.

                                                                             

 

 

                       


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