METHYL TRIPHENYLPHOSPHONIUM IODIDE CATALYST

Phosphine is also called as Hydrogen Phosphide, PH3, is a colourless, poisonous, spontaneously flammable gas, with a disagreeable, garlic-like odour; melting point is -133.5 degree C, boiling point is -87.4 degree C. Phosphine is manufactured by the hydrolysis of metal phosphides and by the electrolysis of phosphorus in the presence of hydrogen, or by the phosphorus-steam reaction.

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Detailed Description for METHYL TRIPHENYLPHOSPHONIUM IODIDE CATALYST

Phosphine is also called as  Hydrogen Phosphide, PH3, is a colourless, poisonous, spontaneously flammable gas, with a disagreeable, garlic-like odour; melting point is -133.5 degree C, boiling point is -87.4 degree C. It is manufactured by the hydrolysis of metal phosphides and by the electrolysis of phosphorus in the presence of hydrogen, or by the phosphorus-steam reaction. Phosphine has the structure of ammonia (NH3) but with phosphorus in place of nitrogen. It is slightly soluble in cold water and alcohol. It is less soluble in water than ammonia. It is used in the synthesis of organophosphines and phosphonium derivatives and as a dopant in the manufacturing of semiconductors. Aluminium or magnesium phosphide is used as formulations ready for fumigation in pest control, and zinc phosphide is used as a rodenticide. Phophene is a preliminary material for the preparation of flame retardants and pesticides. Organophosphines are used as solvents for the extraction and also for separation processes, flame retardants, and in formulating fumigants and electronics applications of semiconductor industry. Tertiary alkylphosphines act as chemical intermediate and catalyst in the production of industrial flavors, acids, alcohols & fragrances, and pharmaceuticals. Phosphonium describes a univalent radical, PH4. Quaternary phosphonium salts, which are obtained from tertiary alkylphosphines with the treatment with alkyl or aromatic halides are thus replaces the phase transfer catalysts and biocides functions for quaternary ammonium salts because of more effective performance and also higher thermal stability. Its salts are mainly used as epoxy curing agents. A variety of phosphine transition metal complex including chiral complexes are synthesized as the very reactive and versatile homogeneous catalysts and stereospecific as well.

Phase transfer catalysis (PTC)' methodology is a powerful tool improving product selectivity, process efficiency and providing mild reaction conditions in organic chemical reactions. In many chemical reactions, there are different species that is immiscible liquids or solid and liquid which don't react to each other due to separation by some interface. Little quantity of ‘phase-transfer catalyst’, involves a substrate which is soluble in the organic layer and also an anionic reagent  or a nucleophile (dissolved in the aqueous layer), extracts one of the reactants, most normally an anion, across the interface into the other phase where reaction can take place with the substrate and reaction can proceed. The quaternary salts of ammonium can carry the nucleophile from the aqueous to organic phase and are used as the most normally used as phase-transfer catalyst’. The phosphonium derivatives favoring higher thermal stability property is used. Polyethylenglycol and Crown ethers compounds are also widely used in this application.

 

 


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