Hydrofluoric Acid

Hydrofluoric acid is the solution of hydrogen fluoride that is gas at room temperature. The pure hydrogen fluoride is a strong acid and it will react violently with bases and is corrosive. It reacts violently with some forms of plastic, glass, metals, rubber and coatings. Its melting point is -83.6°C and boiling point is 19.5°C. It has a critical pressure of 6.48 Mpa and critical density of 0.29 g/cm3.

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Detailed Description for Hydrofluoric Acid

Hydrofluoric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen fluoride which is gas at room temperature (boiling point: 19 C). The pure hydrogen fluoride is a strong acid, it reacts violently with bases and is corrosive. It reacts violently with metals, glass, some forms of plastic, rubber, and coatings. HF exists in complex of H6F6, due to hydrogen binding. The aqueous solution of hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid) is a weak acid as the high strength of hydrogen-fluorine bonds does not allow complete are dissociation with water. It is a highly corrosive, fuming, and Hazardous substance that liquid and vapor can cause severe burns. HF is prepared from the reaction of concentrated sulfuric acid on fluospar (a mineral composed of calcium fluoride, CaF2).

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES (ANHYDROUS)

PHYSICAL STATE Clear, colorless, corrosive fuming liquid
MELTING POINT -84 C
BOILING POINT 19.5 C
SPECIFIC GRAVITY 0.97
SOLUBILITY IN WATER miscible
pH  
VAPOR DENSITY 2.21

AUTOIGNITION

 

NFPA RATINGS

Health: 4 ; Flammability: 0; Reactivity: 1

REFRACTIVE INDEX

 

FLASH POINT

not flammable

STABILITY Stable under ordinary conditions

 

Item

Index

A

B

C

Hydrofluoric(HF),%

70

55

49

Sulphate Content(SO4),%

0.02

0.02

0.02

Fluorosilicate(SiF6),%

0.02

0.02

0.02

 

Application:

 1.Oil refining

In a standard oil refinery process known as alkylation, isobutane is alkylated with low-molecular-weight alkenes (primarily a mixture of propylene and butylene) in the presence of the strong acid catalyst derived from hydrofluoric acid.

 

 2.Production of organofluorine compounds

 The principal use of hydrofluoric acid is in organofluorine chemistry. Many organofluorine compounds are prepared using HF as the fluorine source, including Teflon, fluoropolymers, fluorocarbons, and refrigerants such as freon.[3]

 

3.Production of fluorides

Most high-volume inorganic fluoride compounds are prepared from hydrofluoric acid. Foremost are Na3AlF6, cryolite, and AlF3, aluminium trifluoride. A molten mixture of these solids serves as a high-temperature solvent for the production of metallic aluminium. Given concerns about fluorides in the environment, alternative technologies are being sought. Other inorganic fluorides prepared from hydrofluoric acid include sodium fluoride and uranium hexafluoride.[3]

 

4.Etchant and cleaning agent

In metalworking, hydrofluoric acid is used as a pickling agent to remove oxides and other impurities from stainless and carbon steels because of its limited ability to dissolve steel.It is used in the semiconductor industry as a major component of Wright Etch and buffered oxide etch, which are used to clean silicon wafers. In a similar manner it is also used to etch glass by reacting with silicon dioxide to form gaseous or water-soluble silicon fluorides.

 

5.Niche applications

Because of its ability to dissolve (most) oxides and silicates, hydrofluoric acid is useful for dissolving rock samples (usually powdered) prior to analysis. In similar manner, this acid is used in acid macerations to extract organic fossils from silicate rocks.


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Adriana Grey

HANDLING AND STORAGE Posted on 8/29/2016

Keep it in tightly closed polyethylene containers. Store in a cool and dry place with adequate ventilation in which it should be separated from other chemicals. Protect it from physical damages. Storage facilities should be constructed according to the containment and neutralization of spills. Handling and storage requires special materials and technology specially for containers, pipes, valves, etc., which should be avail by the suppliers. Containers of this material may be hazardous when empty because they retain product residues like vapors, liquid, etc.; Observe all warnings and precautions particularly listed for the product.

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