Transformers

Transformers are static electrical devices that work under the principle of electromagnetic induction. Transformers are the reason for the AC supplies reaching our homes and workplace easily. With the help of transformers, AC supply can be conveniently generated and distributed around the country using grids of cables for over long distances.

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Detailed Description for Transformers



An electric device that transforms electrical energy from one circuit to another with the help of electromagnetic induction is called a transformer. There is no direct physical contact between the circuits. Mutual induction between the two circuits makes it possible to establish a connection between the two circuits. They have become an essential part of transmission, distribution and utilization of alternating current.

A transformer consists of a metallic coil and a ferrous core. The coil transmits the electric current. When the coil is wound around the ferrous core, which in turn creates a magnetic field.

The main motive for using a transformer is to match the voltage of the load to the line voltage supplied by the service. Transformers are all available in wide variety of voltages. The capacity helps one to know how much power a device can handle.

Electromagnetic induction is the main principle used here. EMI produces an electromotive force within a conductor which is exposed to magnetic fields varying in time. Mutual induction is a form of electromagnetic induction by which a coil of wire induces voltage magnetically into another coil in close proximity. Therefore, they are said to transform one voltage or current level into another.

Transformers are capable of increasing and decreasing the voltage and current levels of the supply, without altering its frequency.

CONSTRUCTION

1.    CORES: Transformer cores are made with highly permeable silicon steel. This helps to reduce magnetizing currents.

2.    WINDINGS: the turns of the windings are insulated from each other. These types of wires are often enameled magnet wires.

TYPES

1.    Autotransformer: The transformer in which a part of the winding is common to both primary and secondary circuits.

2.    Capacitor voltage transformer: A capacitor divider is used to reduce high voltages before applying it to primary.

3.    Power transformer:  They are used to transfer energy between generator and distribution.

4.    Phase angle regulating transformer: This transformer is used to control the flow of power on three-phase electricity transmission networks.

5.    Resonant transformer: It uses resonance to generate a secondary voltage.

APPLICATIONS

·       Transformers are used to step up voltage before transmitting electricity generated at the source over long distances.

·       It helps in economical transmission of power and distribution.

·       They have shaped electricity supply industry to help generate electricity form points of demand.

·       They are used in small electronic products to step-down the supply voltage and guard low voltage circuits.

·       Audio transformers are used to amplify and match devices like microphones and record players.

·       Telephone circuits that incorporate audio transformers can carry out a two way conversation over a single pair of wires.

 

 


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