Optic Fiber

Fiber optic cables comprises of one or more than one transparent or translucent fibers surrounded by a protective covering and casing that imbibe strength. Fiber optic cables is transparent to signals such as light, to travel through them without interference. A real fiber optic cable is manufactured using glass which is an extremely classic medium that propagates light over large distances. The glass is then covered in two layers of plastic that provide rigidity and decreases signal loss.

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Detailed Description for Optic Fiber

Principle of operation:
Light propagating through the fiber rebounds at shallow angles and stays wholly within the fiber. This is as a result of light hitting the interface at an angle which is larger than the critical angle. At this angle, the light ray gets reflected and hence it will not pass through to the second medium at all.

Fiber Optic cable types


Simplex- Fiber optic cables with a single optical fibre is called a Simplex cables. They are used in applications that require a one-way information transfer. Simplex is obtainable in both singlemode and multimode configurations.


Duplex- Fiber optic cables with two optical fibers are termed as Duplex cables. They are commonly arranged side-by-side and are used for applications that involves simultaneous, bi-directional information transfer. Duplex fiber is obtainable in both singlemode and multimode configurations.


 
Multifiber- Fiber optic cable with several optical fibers is termed as Multifibers.
 
Patch cord - Short lengths of fiber optic cable containing connectors that can be directly connected to other equipment are called patch cords and these are used for connecting and managing purposes.


Bare fiber - Fiber optic containing core and cladding only are termed as bare fiber. This fiber is mainly used for connecting equipment on one end to a light source on the other. Bare fiber can be ended, refined, or equipped for pig-tailing.


Fiber Types


Two types of fiber optics are singlemode and multimode. Modes define the supply of light energy across the fiber. Light rays can propagate through the wire as long as they are hitting the core-cladding interface at an angle which is less than that of the critical angle.

  Multimode Fiber

Singlemode Fiber

62.5μm core diameter

8.3μm core diameter

Generally uses cheap LED light source

Utilizes laser as light source

Multiple paths used by light

Light propagates in a single path down the core

Short distances, <8km

Long distances, >8km

Power distributed in 100% of the fiber core and into the cladding

Power in the center of the fiber core only.


 Advantages

1.    Easy to Accommodate Increasing Bandwidth

2.    Resistance to Electromagnetic Interference

3.    Data Security

4.    Non Conductive Cables

5.    Eliminating Spark Hazards

6.    Ease Of Installation

7.    High Bandwidth Over Long Distances

8.    Low Power loss


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