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Reverse osmosis is a process in which a solvent from a region of high solute is forced through a semipermeable membrane to a region of low solute.
Reverse osmosis can eliminate many types of suspended and dissolved species from un-purified water that includes removing various bacteria and other chemicals. This system is an efficient purifier when industrial production of potable water is considered.
The process is such that the solute gets retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the purified resultant solvent is allowed to pass on the other side. This is based on the principle in which large ions or molecules are not allowed through the pores of the membrane whereas small molecules that are considerably the same size as the pores are allowed to flow through it thereby giving the name reverse osmosis.
Reverse Osmosis removes dissolved salts, particles, colloids, organics and pyrogens from the water to be purified. An RO membrane discards contaminants based on their size and charge. Any contaminant weighing greater than 200 units is likely rejected by a properly running RO system. Similarly, the greater the ionic charge of the particulate matter, the more likely it will be unable to pass through the RO membrane.
Some examples of industries that use RO method of purification are,
• Industries with boilers
• food and beverage
• metal finishing
• semiconductor manufacturing
REVERSE OSMOSIS PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN
An RO system displays quality, flow, pressure and other data like temperature or hours of operation. In order to accurately measure the performance of an RO system one needs to consider parameters like,
1. Feed pressure
2. Pressure of the permeable membrane
3. Concentrate pressure of the feed
4. Conductivity of the feed
6. Feed flow
7. Permeate flow through the membrane
8. Temperature of the purifier setup
REJECTION OF SALT
This equation tells you how efficient the RO membranes are in removing contaminants. A well-designed RO system with accurately operative RO membranes will reject 99% of the feed water contaminants.
The higher the salt rejection, the better is the system’s performance.
A Mass Balance equation is used to govern your flow and quality of your instrument. If the instrumentation is flawed, the system requires calibration. The following data collected from the RO system helps analyse mass balance:
1. Feed Flow
2. Permeate Flow
3. Concentrate Flow
4. Conductivity of the feed
5. Permeate Conductivity
6. Concentrate Conductivity
APPLICATIONS AND USES
1. Treatment and recycle of waste water produced from metal finishing and plating operations.
2. It proves operative in treating brackish, surface and ground water for both large and small flows applications. Reverse Osmosis proves operative in treating brackish, surface and ground water for both large and small flows applications.
3. Automotive manufacturing uses RO to treat and recycle the water used for cleaning and painting.
4. Food and beverage industries to reduce BOD before discharging the water.
5. Groundwater and landfill leachate.
6. It can be integrated with existing membrane to achieve up to 85% rinse water cycle.
7. It reduces water and sewage
8. Modular design for easy installation
9. Easy to use when comes with operating manual.