Tee - ASTRAL

A Tee is the most common pipe fitting. It is available with all female thread sockets, all solvent weld sockets, or with opposed solvent weld sockets and a side outlet with female threads. It is used to either combine or split a fluid flow. It is a type of pipe fitting which is T-shaped having two outlets, at 90° to the connection to the main line. It is a short piece of pipe with a lateral outlet.

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Detailed Description for Tee - ASTRAL

ASTRAL Aquarius ASTM uPVC pipes and fittings are Lead free and hence non-toxic, easy to install and are made for life time trouble free service.

 

Features & Benefits:

·         LEAD FREE: ASTRAL Aquarius uPVC pipes being lead free so are non-toxic and hence favoured for use in applications such as potable water pipes.

·         SOLVENT CEMENT WELDING: Solvent Cement welding is most reliable and proven joining system for 100% leakproof plumbing. Tools required are very simple and inexpensive (pipe cutter and chamfering tool only). It saves labour cost compared to GI and copper plumbing and saves on investment of electrical equipments for electro fusion welding of other polymers.

·         MORE PRESSURE BEARING CAPACITY: ASTRAL Aquarius uPVC solvent joint plumbing system makes its pressure bearing capacity twice than that of the threaded pipe.

·         UV RESISTANT: U.V. Acts as a strong catalyst for the oxidation process which breaks down the polymer chains, leading weakness in the pipes and fittings and do loss of hydrostatic strength. Above effect is very much common with materials like PP and PE.

·         SAFE FOR POTABLE WATER: ASTRAL Aquarius uPVC pipes are made from Lead Free and non-toxic raw material. ASTRAL Aquarius uPVC pipes are always safe for potable water.

 

Other Features:

·         Strong and light weight

·         Low friction loss

·         Non-toxic

·         Good insulator

·         International quality

·         Versatile

·         Cost effective

·         Durable

·         Easy to join

·         Immunity to galvanic or electrolytic attack

·         Wide range & suitability


Applications:

·         Ring lines / Down take lines 

·         Swimming pools

·         Salt water lines

·         Sugar and paper industries

·         Pipes for hand pumps

·         Industrial process lines

·         Aggressive / corrosive fluid transportation

·         Dye plants, chrome, zinc plating and tanning plants

·         Coal washing and ash handling

 

Advantages:

·         Strong and Light Weight: PVC's abrasion resistance, light weight, good mechanical strength and toughness are key technical advantages for its use in building and construction applications.

·         Easy to Install: PVC can be cut, shaped, welded and joined easily in a variety of styles. 

·         Fire Resistant: PVC is inherently difficult to ignite and stops burning once the source of heat is removed. Compared to its common plastic alternatives PVC performs better in terms of lower combustibility, flammability, flame propagation and heat release. Newly developed advantages in terms of lower acid emissions, smoke generation and enhanced fire resistance. 

·         Durable: PVC is resistant to weathering, chemical rotting, corrosion, shock and abrasion, it is therefore the preferred choice for a range of customers for many different long-life and outdoor products. In fact, medium and long term applications account for some 85 percent of PVC production in the building and construction sector. PVC building products are lighter than those made of concrete, iron or steel. This requires less fuel and generates fewer emissions during transportation. They are also durable, so frequent replacement is not required. 

·         Cost – Effective: PVC has been a popular material for construction applications for decades due to its physical and technical properties which provide excellent cost-performance advantages. As a material it is very competitive in terms of price, this value is also enhanced by the properties such as its durability, lifespan and low maintenance. 

·         Environmental Impact: In lifecycle analyses and independent studies, PVC's environmental impact has been found to be favourable when compared with other manufactured materials used for construction. It is comparatively low in its energy and resource use during production, as well as in conversion to finished products. 

·         Good Insulator: PVC does not conduct electricity Astral Aquarius is a non-conductor of electricity so it makes the plumbing system safe when working with electrical tools or equipments SAFE MATERIAL Astral Aquarius is non-toxic Astral Aquarius is lead free which makes it a safe material for potable water. It is also the world's most researched and thoroughly tested plastic PVC meets all international standards for safety and health for both the products and applications for which it is used. 

·         Versatile: The physical properties of PVC allow designers a high degree of freedom when designing new products and developing solutions where PVC acts as a replacement or refurbishment material.

 

Thermal Expansion

EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION OF uPVC PIPE

uPVC pipes, like other piping materials, undergo length changes as a result of temperature variations above and below the installation temperature. They or iron pipe. The extent of the expansion - expansion of piping material. The length of pipe between directional changes, and the temperature differential.

The coefficient of thermal expansion (Y) for uPVC is 3.1 × 10-5

There are several ways to compensate for expansion and contraction. The most common methods are:

·         Expansion loops which consist of pipe and 90° elbows

·         Piston type expansion joints

·         Flexible bends

·         Bellows and rubber expansion joints

·         The manufacturers of these devices should be contacted to determine the suitability of their products for the specific application.

When installing the expansion loop, No rigid or restraining supports should be placed within the leg lengths of the loop. The loop should be installed as closely as possible to the mid-point between anchors. Piping support guides should restrict lateral movement and direct axial movement into the loop. Lastly, the pipe and fittings should be solvent cemented together, rather than using threaded connections.

Compensation for expansion and contraction in underground application is normally achieved by snaking the pipe in the trench. Proper trenching and burial procedures must be followed to protect the piping system.

 

SUPPORT AND SPACING FOR uPVC PIPE

Adequate supports for any piping system is a matter of great importance. in practice, support spacings are a function of pipe size operating temperatures, the location of heavy valves of fittings and the mechanical properties of the pipe material,

To ensure the satisfactory operation of a ASTRAL Aquarius uPVC piping system, the location and type of hangers should be carefully considered. Hangers should not compress, distort, cut or abrade the piping.

All piping should be supported with an approved hanger at intervals sufficiently close to maintain correct pipe alignment and to prevent sagging or geade reversal. Pipe alignment and to prevent sagging or branch ends and at all changes of direction. Support trap arms as close as possible to the trap. In keeping with good plumbing practices support and brace all closet bends and fasten closet flanges.

·         Concentrated loads should be supported directly so as to eliminate high stress concentrations. Should this be impractical then the pipe must be supported immediately adjacent to the load.

·         In systems where large fluctuations in temperature occur, allowances must be made for expansion and contraction of the piping system. Since changes in direction in the system are usually sufficient to allow for expansion and contraction hangers must be placed so as not to restrict this movement.

·         Since plastic pipe expands or contracts approximately five times greater than those of steel, hangers should not restrict this movement.

·         Hangers should provide as much bearing surface as possible. To prevent damage to the pipe, file smooth any sharp edges of burrs on the hangers or supports.

·         Support spacing for horizontal piping systems is determined by the maximum operating temperature the system will encounter. The piping should be supported on uniform centres with supports that do not restrict the axial movement.

·         For vertical lines, it is recommended that an engineer should design the vertical supports engineer should design the vertical load involved.


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