Aluminium Hydroxide

Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is found in nature as the mineral gibbsite (also known as hydrargillite) and its three much rarer polymorphs: bayerite, doyleite and nordstrandite.

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Detailed Description for Aluminium Hydroxide

Hydrated alumina, also known as alumina trihydrate (ATH), or simply hydrate, is more accurately chemically designated as aluminum trihydroxide, Al(OH)3. It is a non-abrasive powder with a Mohs' hardness index of 2.5 - 3.5 and a specific gravity of 2.42. Alumina trihydrate is the largest volume flame retardant used in the world. On heating to 200°C, hydrated alumina decomposes into 66% alumina and 34% water. This irreversible process is, in part, what makes ATH an effective flame retardant. 

Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is found in nature as the mineral gibbsite (also known as hydrargillite) and its three much rarer polymorphs: bayerite, doyleite and nordstrandite. Closely related are aluminium oxide hydroxide, AlO(OH), and aluminium oxide (or alumina), Al2O3. These compounds together are the major components of the aluminium ore bauxite. Freshly precipitated aluminium hydroxide forms gels, which are the basis for the application of aluminium salts as flocculants in water purification. This gel crystallizes with time. Aluminium hydroxide gels can be dehydrated (e.g. using water-miscible non-aqueous solvents like ethanol) to form an amorphous aluminium hydroxide powder, which is readily soluble in acids. Aluminium hydroxide powder which has been heated to an elevated temperature under carefully controlled conditions is known as activated alumina and is used as a desiccant, as an adsorbent in gas purification, as a Claus catalyst support for water purification, and as an adsorbent for the catalyst during the manufacture of polyethylene by the Sclairtech process.

Gibbsite has a typical metal hydroxide structure with hydrogen bonds. It is built up of double layers of hydroxyl groups with aluminium ions occupying two-thirds of the octahedral holes between the two layers.

Aluminium hydroxide is amphoteric. It dissolves in acid, forming [Al(H2O)6]3+ (hexaaquaaluminium) or its hydrolysis products. It also dissolves in strong alkali, forming [Al(OH)4]− (tetrahydroxidoaluminate).

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

PHYSICAL STATE odorless white powder
MELTING POINT

300 C

BOILING POINT  
SPECIFIC GRAVITY 2.42
SOLUBILITY IN WATER insoluble
pH weak basic
VAPOR DENSITY  

AUTOIGNITION

 

NFPA RATINGS

Health: 1; Flammability: 0; Reactivity: 0

REFRACTIVE INDEX

 

FLASH POINT Not considered to be a fire hazard
STABILITY Stable under ordinary conditions

 

Aluminium hydroxide is also used as an adsorbent, emulsifier, ion exchanger, mordant, antacid, and filtering medium. It is also used in the manufacture of paper, ceramics, printing inks, detergents, for waterproofing fabrics and in dentrifrices and antiperspirants.


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Seema S

HANDLING AND STORAGE Posted on 8/26/2016

Aluminium Hydroxide related to normal goods, keep it in a tight closed container and store it in a cool, dry and ventilated area which protects it against physical damage. Packing it in 25Kg bag is recommended.

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