Phosphoric Acid

Phosphoric acid is a phosphorus-containing inorganic acid made up of phosphorus, oxygen, and hydrogen. In a broardened term, it includes the monomeric (orthophosphoric acid), dimeric (pyrophosphoric acid), and polymeric (metaphosphoric acid) forms of the acid.

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Detailed Description for Phosphoric Acid

Phosphoric acid is a phosphorus-containing inorganic acid made up of phosphorus, oxygen, and hydrogen. In a broardened term, it includes the monomeric (orthophosphoric acid), dimeric (pyrophosphoric acid), and polymeric (metaphosphoric acid) forms of the acid.  Phosphoric acid commonly indicates the monomeric form orthophosphoric acid. On heating to about 225 C, it dehydrates to form pyrophosphoric acid and to metaphosphoric acid (2HPO3 = P2O5.H2O) at higher temperatures. Pyrophosphates are salts of pyrophosphoric acid and metaphosphates are salts of metaphosphoric acid. Two molecules of orthophosphoric acid are formed when three molecules of water are added to one molecule of phosphorus pentoxide (2H3PO4 = P2O5.3H2O). The pyrophosphates are formed by the loss of 1 molecule of water from 2 moles of an orthophosphate. Pure orthophosphoric acid is a crystalline solid; melting point 42 C; soluble in alcohol, and very soluble in water.

Phosphoric Acid violently polymerizes under the influence of azo compounds, epoxides and other polymerizable compounds. It forms toxic fumes of phosphorous oxides when combusted. It is a medium strong acid and attacks metals to release flammable hydrogen gas. Decomposition may occur on contacting with alcohols, aldehydes, cyanides, ketones, phenols, esters, sulfides, halogenated organics compounds.

 

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES (85%)

PHYSICAL STATE Clear syrupy liquid
MELTING POINT 41 C
BOILING POINT 158 C
SPECIFIC GRAVITY 1.69
SOLUBILITY IN WATER Miscible
PH 1.5 (0.1 N aqueous sol.)
VISCOSITY 3.86 mPa at 20 C
VAPOR DENSITY 3.4

AUTOIGNITION

 

NFPA RATINGS

Health: 3 Flammability: 0 Reactivity: 0

REFRACTIVE INDEX

 

FLASH POINT Not considered to be a fire hazard
STABILITY Stable under ordinary conditions.

 

Item

Standard(FCCIV)

Test Result

H3PO4

≥85%

85.2%

As

≤0.00005%

0.00001%

Easily Oxidated Matter(AS H3PO3)

≤0.012%

0.006%

 F

≤0.001%

0.0003%

Heavy Metals(as Pb)

≤0.0005%

0.0002%

 

 

Phosphoric acid is essential in the body organism as the constituent of bones and teeth as well as in many metabolic process of carbohydrate, fat and protein. Phosphoric acid is abundant in natural foods as the form of free phosphoric acid itself or as the mineral salts (potassium, sodium or calcium). Phosphoric acid is used to acidify foods and beverages. But the continuous and excessive absorption of beverages particularly Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola which contain large amount of phosphoric acid should be limited. Phosphate excretion takes place in the form of calcium phosphate. The excessive amounts of phosphoric acid in the body may cause calcium deficiency which causes poor teeth and weak bone density (osteoporosis). Phosphoric acid is used in pharmaceutical preparations as a solvent and as a gastric acidifier orally.  Phosphoric acid is important raw material in industrial field. It is a tribasic acid (having three replaceable hydrogen atoms) which can forms phosphates with either one, two, or all three of the hydrogens by replacing with some other positive ion. It is used in making fertilizers, electrolytes, electroplating and derusting solutions. It is used in the manufacture of industrial cleaning products, other inorganic and organic phosphoric chemicals, foundry resins, paints, enamels and refractory, antifreeze productions, and textile process materials. It is used in water treatment. Food grade phosphoric acid is used; as a acidulation in soft drink (particularly cola); ph control in imitation jellies; nutrient in production of yeast; bacteria growth control in selected processed foods; flocculating agent for clarification of sugar juices after liming process.

Phosphorous acid:  a diprotic acid which contains one hydrogen bonded directly to the central phosphorus atom and two hydrogens bonded to oxygen

Phosphite:any salt, ester or anion of phosphorous acid

Phosphate: any salt, ester or anion of phosphoric acid

Phosphide: any binary compound of phosphorus with another element or radical

Phosphine:  binary compound of phosphorus with hydrogen or organic compounds derived from this

Phosphoric acid alkyl esters are also used as alkylation agent for nitrogen heterocyclic compounds and as catalysts to produce phenolic and urea resins. They are used flame retarding plasticizers for cellulose esters, lacquers, plastic and vinyl resins as well as as dispersing agents in plastisols. They are used as solvents in liquid-liquid extractants or separation agent of metals. They are is used as heat exchange media and as pigment grinding assistants and antifoam agents.


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