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Acetonitrile, also called methyl cyanide, is the simplest organic nitrile; clear, flammable liquid; melting at -45 C; boiling at 81.6 C; miscible with water and with common organic solvents such as alcohols, ethers, ethanol, acetone, saturated hydrocarbons (alkenes), chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, ethylene chloride and chlorinated alkanes, but immiscible with many saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes). Gases such as HCl, SO2, and H2S are soluble in acetonitrile. It can be obtained by dehydration of an acetic acid and ammonia mixtureor or by the reaction of ethanol and ammonia in the presence of catalyst such as Ag, Cu, MoO3, and ZnS at moderate temperatures as well as a by-product of acrylonitrile synthesis.
Nitrile is an organic compounds containing cyano group (-C¡ÕN, containing trivalent nitrogen) which is attached to one carbon atom with the general formula RC¡ÕN. Their names are corresponding to carboxylic acids by changing '-ic acid' to the suffix, '-onitrile' which denotes only the ¡ÕN atom (triply bound) excluding the carbon atom attached to it, or the suffix, '-carbonitrile' where the carbon atom in the -CN is included, whichever preserves a single letter O. Examples are acetonitrile from acetic acid and benzonitrile from benzoic acid. The prefix, 'cyano-' is used as an alternative naming system to indicate the presence of a nitrile group in a molecule for the compounds of salts and organic derivatives of hydrogen cyanide (HC¡ÕN). Isocyanides are salts and hydrocarbyl derivatives from the isomer, HN+¡ÕC-. Sodium cyanide, NaCN; potassium cyanide, KCN; calcium cyanide, Ca(CN)2; and hydrocyanic (or prussic) acid, HCN are examples. Chemically, the simple inorganic cyanides resemble chlorides in many ways.
Acetonitrile is also produced by the reaction of cyanogen chloride with methane, ketones, ethanol, alkylene epoxides, and paraffins (or olefins). Its primary use is as an extraction solvent for unsaturated hydrocarbons (especially butadiene) and as a general purpose solvent for many compounds including fatty acids and oils based on its selective miscibility. It is used as a general purpose solvent for many compounds. It is used in the production of fibers, rubbers, and resins. It is replacing acrylonitrile, an important starting material in the manufacture of fabrics, plastics, and synthetic rubber. It is used as a chemical intermediate in pesticide, perfume and pharmaceutical manufacturing. It is used in high-performance liquid and gas chromatographic analysis. It is used in extraction and refining of copper.
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
|PHYSICAL STATE||Clear liquid|
|MELTING POINT||-46 C|
|BOILING POINT||81 - 82 C|
|SOLUBILITY IN WATER||Miscible|
|NFPA RATINGS||Health: 2 Flammability: 3 Reactivity: 0|
Stable under ordinary conditions.
It is replacing acrylonitrile, an important starting material in the manufacture of fabrics, plastics, and synthetic rubber. It is used as a chemical intermediate in pesticide, perfume and pharmaceutical manufacturing. It is used in high-performance liquid and gas chromatographic analysis. It is used in extraction and refining of copper.