Accelerometer

Accelerometer have an operating life span of 100,000 cycles. It may have a humidity of 95% RH, 40°C for 96 hours. It is available in silver and black colors. It has contact resistance is < 10 ohm and insulation resistance is :>10M ohm. It is used in engineering, biology and in various industries to measure acceleration.

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Detailed Description for Accelerometer

 Accelerometer is a device that measures approximate acceleration ("g-force"). Acceleration is not the same as coordinate acceleration. For ex, an accelerometer at rest on the surface of the Earth will measure an acceleration g= 9.81 m/s2 upwards. By contrast, accelerometers in free fall (falling toward center of the Earth at a rate of about 9.81 m/s2) will measure zero.
Accelerometers have applications in industry and science. sensitive accelerometers are components of inertial navigation systems for aircraft and missiles. Accelerometers is used to detect and monitor vibration in rotating machinery. Accelerometers is used in tablet computers and digital cameras so that images on screens are always displayed upright. Accelerometers is used in drones for flight stabilisation. These devices are called gravity gradiometers, as they measure gradients in the gravitational field. Such pairs of accelerometers in theory may also be able to detect gravitational waves.

Single- and multi models of the accelerometer are available to detect magnitude and direction of the acceleration and can be used to sense orientation (because a direction of weight changes), coordinate acceleration (so long as it produces g-force or a change in g-force), vibration and falling in a resistive medium.Machined accelerometers are increasingly present in electronic devices , video games and controllers to detect the position of the device or provide for game input.

 

 Physical principles

An accelerometer measures acceleration, which is the acceleration it experiences relative to freefall and is the acceleration felt by people and objects. Put another way, at any point in spacetime the equivalence principle guarantees the existence of a local inertial frame, and an accelerometer measures the acceleration relative to that frame. Such accelerations are popularly measured in terms of g-force.

An accelerometer is at rest relative to the Earth's surface will indicate approximately upwards, because any point on the Earth's surface is accelerating relative to the local inertial frame .To obtain the acceleration due to motion with respect to the Earth, this "gravity offset" must be subtracted and corrected by made for effects caused by the Earth's rotation relative to the inertial frame.

The reason for the appearance of a gravitational offset is Einstein's equivalence principle,which states that the effects of gravity on an object are indistinguishable from acceleration. When held fixed in a gravitational field by, for example, applying a ground reaction force or an equivalent upward thrust, the reference frame for an accelerometer accelerates upwards with respect to a free-falling reference frame.The accelerometer cannot detect the difference between sitting in a rocket on the launch pad, and being in the same rocket in deep space while it uses its engines to accelerate at 1 g. ex an accelerometer will read zero during any type of free fall. It also includes use in a coating spaceship in deep space far from any mass, a space orbiting the Earth, an airplane in a parabolic arc, and any free-fall in vacuum. Another example is free-fall at a sufficiently high altitude that atmospheric effects can be neglected.

 

Applications

Engineering

Accelerometers can be used to measure vehicle acceleration. They allow for evaluation of overall vehicle performance and response.This information can then be used to make adjustments to various vehicle subsystems as needed.

Accelerometers can be used to measure vibration on cars, machines, buildings, process control systems and safety installations. They can also be used to measure seismic activity, inclination, machine vibration, dynamic distance and speed with or without the influence of gravity. Applications for accelerometers that measure gravity, wherein an accelerometer is specifically configured for use in gravimetry, are called gravimeters.

Notebook computers equipped with accelerometers can contribute to the Quake-Catcher Network , a BOINC project aimed at scientific research of earthquakes.

Biology

Accelerometers are also increasingly used in the biological sciences. High frequency recordings of bi-axial or tri-axial acceleration allows the discrimination of behavioral patterns while animals are out of sight. Furthermore, recordings of acceleration allow researchers to quantify the rate at which an animal is expending energy in the wild, by either determination of limb-stroke frequency or measures such as overall dynamic body acceleration Such approaches have mostly been adopted by marine scientists due to an inability to study animals in the wild using visual observations, however an increasing number of terrestrial biologists are adopting similar approaches. This device can be connected to an amplifier to amplify the signal.

Industry

 

Accelerometers are also used for machinery health monitoring to report the vibration and its changes in time of shafts at the bearings of rotating equipment such as turbines,pumps, fans,rollers,compressor or bearing fault which, if not attended to promptly, can lead to costly repairs. Accelerometer vibration data allows the user to monitor machines and detect these faults before the rotating equipment fails completely. Vibration monitoring programs are utilized in industries such as automotive manufacturing, machine tool applications, pharmaceutical production, power generation and power plants,pulp and paper,sugar mills, food and beverage production, water and wastewater, hydropower, petrochemical and steel manufacturing.

Building and structural monitoring

Accelerometers are used to measure the motion and vibration of a structure that is exposed to dynamic loads. Dynamic loads originate from a variety of sources including:

  • Human activities – walking, running, dancing or skipping
  • Working machines – inside a building or in the surrounding area
  • Construction work – driving piles, demolition, drilling and excavating
  • Moving loads on bridges
  • Vehicle collisions
  • Impact loads – falling debris
  • Concussion loads – internal and external explosions
  • Collapse of structural elements
  • Wind loads and wind gusts
  • Air blast pressure
  • Loss of support because of ground failure
  • Earthquakes and aftershocks

 

 


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