Impellers

An impeller is an instrument that is used to increase the pressure of flow of fluid. A centrifugal pump incorporated an impeller. It helps transfer energy from the motor and drives the pump to the fluid being pumped.

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Detailed Description for Impellers

Impellers are rotating instruments that are designed to alter the flow and pressure of liquids, gasses and vapours. An impeller consists of various blade shaped vanes. They are arranged in the central shaft of the body. The rotation of shaft and vanes produces a vacuum effect that sucks the liquids and gasses to impel them out to the other side.
They are typically found as an integral component in pumps, agitation tanks, washing machines, and other devices which require fluids and gasses to move in a specific direction. Pump impellers work on Bernoulli’s principle, which states that an increased fluid velocity is accompanied by decreased pressure or potential energy.
WORKING
The fluid enters the orifice and it is made to move through the pump using a combination of suction and pressure until the fluid is moved through the outlet orifice. The rotation together with the design of the vanes causes the pump to move more fluid in either clockwise or anticlockwise direction.
TYPES
•    Open design: This type of impellers consists of a series of vanes that are fit to a central hub that is engineered to be fitted on to a shaft. This design prevents large amounts of gas or fluids from recirculating back through the eye of the impeller assembly, the above achieved by placing the vane ends very close to the casing of the pump.

ADVANTAGES:
1.    Easy maintenance
2.    Less expensive
3.    Vane alteration is possible and economical
4.    Not prone to clogging
5.    Manufacturing cost is less

•    Closed design: this type of impellers have two characteristic solid plates that are fitted to both sides of the blades. After the entrance of impeller media into the eye, it carves its path through the vanes and is drawn into a nozzle and finally expelled out. In this type there is no necessary recirculation of the impeller media back to the eye.

ADVANTAGES:
1.    Increased efficiency
2.    Suitable for explosion prone environments
3.    Thermal growth is compensated
4.    Also suitable for volatile fluids
APPLICATIONS
1.    Impellers used in pumps: they are the integral part of centrifugal pumps and vacuum pumps. It is used to move the liquid out of the pumps.
2.    Impellers used for mixing: they are commonly used in agitation tanks whose main purpose is to mix slurries and fluids. These impellers employ an open design and are fit to a central shaft which is in turn placed at the centre of the tank.
3.    Chemical compressor refrigeration
4.    Heat exchangers
5.    Emergency fume and smoke extraction.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

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