I BEAM

I beams are dark, red, sturdy beams found under building blocks category. These beams can be set to fixed or unfixed and are available in various sizes which could be less than 100*50mm or more than 125mm*75mm. Dimensions could be less than 36” (H) * 36” (W) * 75” (D) or more than 91cms (H) * 91cms (W) * 2cms (D). I beams are primarily used in construction and railways etc.

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Detailed Description for I BEAM

I beams, also known as H-beams, W-beams (or Wide flange beams), or rolled steel joint, are beams with an I- or H-shaped cross section. Basically there are two standard I beam forms:

     Rolled I-beam, formed by hot rolling, cold rolling (depending on material)

     Plate grinder, formed by welding plates.

I-beams are basically made up of structural steel but may also be formed from aluminium or other materials. One common category of the I-beam is the rolled steel joint (RSJ). These sections have parallel flanges as parallel flanges are easier to connect to.

Universal Columns (UCs) have equal or near-equal width and are more suited to being oriented vertically to carry axial load like columns in multi storey construction, while Universal Beams (UBs) are significantly deeper and are more suited to carry bending load such as beam elements in floors. 

Design:

I-beams are widely used in construction industries and are available in a variety of standard sizes. These may be used as both rows and columns. 

Following criteria may be considered while designing:

Deflection: stiffness of I-beam will be chosen to minimize deformation.

Vibration: stiffness and mass of I-beam is chosen to prevent unacceptable vibrations, particularly in sensitive areas such as offices and libraries.

Bending failure by yielding: threshold where the stress in the cross section exceeds the yield stress.

Bending failure by lateral torsional buckling: where the entire cross-section buckles torsionally.

Bending failure by local bucking: where the flange is so thin to buckle locally.

Local yield: it is pushed by concentrated loads, such as at beams’ support point.

Shear failure: where the web fails. Shear failure is resisted by the stiffness of the flanges.

 

Design for bending:

A beam under bending experiences the maximum stress along the axial fibres that are farthest from the neutral axis and to prevent failure, most of the material in the beam must be located at this region only. Little material is needed in the area close to the neutral axis. And this observation has led the basis of I-beam cross section; the neutral axis runs along the centre of the web. Hence the centre of the web can be thin and most of the materials can be concentrated in the flanges.

An I-beam having least cross-sectional area is considered to be the ideal beam. Since section modulus is dependent on the value of moment of inertia, an efficient beam must have its maximum material located at a length from the neutral axis. The farther the amount is from the neutral axis, the larger is the section modulus and larger bending moment can be resisted then.

Required section modulus is given by

S = Mmax/Rhomax = I/c,

Where I is moment of inertia of beam cross section and c is distance of top of beam from the neutral axis.

For beam of cross-sectional area ‘a’ and height ‘h, the ideal cross-section would be having half the area at distance h/2 above the cross-section and the other half at a distance h/2 below the cross-section. Cross-section, 

I = ah^2/4; S = 0.5ah.

The sectional modulus for wide flanges is almost 0.35ah.


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Seema S

A fine product with even more fine service. Cheers!! Posted on 8/12/2016

Check with the resistance of the I beam as it should not offer one. The I beam should be having no or less resistance to twisting.

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