Vanadium(V) Pentoxide Catalyst is an inorganic compound and its formula V2O5 and commonly known as vanadium pentoxide, it is a Rust- Brown solid. Vanadium compounds (pentoxide and certain vanadates) are used as catalyst in the oxidation of SO2 to SO3, syntheses of phthalic and maleic anhydrides, manufacture of polyamides (nylon), ethanol to acetaldehyde, and anthracene to anthraquinone. Vanadium pentoxide is used in industrial catalyst.

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Vanadium compounds (pentoxide and certain vanadates) are used as catalyst in the oxidation of SO2 to SO3; ethanol to acetaldehyde; in the syntheses of phthalic and maleic anhydrides; in the manufacture of polyamides (nylon); sugar to oxalic acid, and anthracene to anthraquinone. It is also used for the manufacture of yellow glass; inhibiting UV light transmission in glass; depolarizer; as developer in photography; and as mordant in dyeing and printing fabrics and in manufacture of aniline black in form of ammonium vanadate.

Vanadium a soft, ductile, silver-grey metallic transition element in the member of group Vb of the periodic table; symbol V; Atomic number  23; atomic mass; 50.9415; melting point ca 1,890 C; boiling point ca  3,380 C; specific gravity about 6 at 20 C; valence +2, +3, +4, and maximum +5; electronic config [Ar]3d34s2; resembles chromium in properties; found in several minerals such as carnotite, patronite, roscoelite, and vanadinite with good structural strength. Vanadium has two natural isotopes, 50v and  51v, and several radioactive isotopes (46-49V,  52-54V) have been obtained artificially. It dissolves in water to form acidic solutions and dissolves in acids. It reacts with bases to form vanadates. Vanadium trioxide (V2O3) is basic in solution and dissolves in acids to give the green hexa-aquo ion (V(H2O)6)3+. In solution, V3+ is a strong reducing agent and slowly attacks water with the production of hydrogen. Vanadium is usually found bound to oxygen as a negatively charged polymeric oxyanion that tends to  complex to polarizable ligands, such as phosphorus and sulfur. Vanadium can be obtained by the extraction from ores, extraction from fossil fuels  and  extraction from slag . It has good resistance to corrosion by hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, saltwater, or alkalies at room temperature but oxidizes readily above 660 C. 

 Titanium-boron-aluminium (TiBAl) rod, containing less than 1% vanadium, is used by the secondary aluminium industry as a grain refiner. The hard metals industry uses small amounts of vanadium carbide in the production of tungsten carbide tool bits. Pure vanadium, imported from outside the United Kingdom, is used in very small quan tities for research purposes.

Vanadium pentoxide is used as the catalyst for a variety of gas-phase oxidation processes, particularly the conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide during the manufacture of sulfuric acid. The most frequently used vanadium pentoxide catalyst contains 4–6% vanadium as vanadium pentoxide on a silica base.

Vanadium pentoxide is also used in some pigments and inks used in the ceramics industry to impart a colour ranging from brown to green. Pigments and inks are made containing up to about 15% vanadium pentoxide, the higher-concentration ones being supplied in an oil base rather than as a dry powder.

Vanadium pentoxide can be used as a colouring agent and to provide ultraviolet filtering properties in some glasses. Normally, the vanadium content in the batch materials is less than 0.5%.

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Safety Precautions Posted on 8/29/2016

Vanadium pent oxide catalyst is harmful for unborn child; it can be toxic. In case of prolonged exposure by inhalation may cause serious damages to the health; it is irritating for the respiratory system.

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