Sewage Treatment Plant

Sewage Treatment Plant is a facility designed to receive the waste from domestic, commercial and industrial sources and to remove materials that damage water quality and compromise public health and safety when discharged into water receiving systems. Today, technological progress is increasingly broadening the range of possibilities offered by classic environmental protection. The ecological focus is on water protection and the multiple use of waste water.

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Detailed Description for Sewage Treatment Plant

About Sewage Treatment Plant

Sewage Treatment Plant is a cost effective solution for reducing the hazard to environment. It treats waste and brings down its parameters up to the level defined by regulatory bodies prior to discharge in the water bodies. The plant is capable of treating domestic, commercial and industrial wastes. It works by removing all the harmful materials from the sewage that can be hazardous to environment and human.



 Extended Aeration/ Activated Sludge Process

Extended aeration is a method of sewage treatment using modified activated sludge procedures. It is preferred for relatively small waste loads, where lower operating efficiency is offset by mechanical simplicity.

An Activated Sludge Plant involves:

1.       Wastewater aeration in the presence of a microbial suspension,

2.       Solid-liquid separation following aeration,

3.       Discharge of clarified effluent,

4.       Wasting of excess biomass, and

5.       Return of remaining biomass to the aeration tank.

In activated sludge process wastewater containing organic matter is aerated in an aeration basin in which microorganisms metabolize the suspended and soluble organic matter. Part of organic matter is synthesized into new cells and part is oxidized to CO2 and water to derive energy. In activated sludge systems the new cells formed in the reaction are removed from the liquid stream in the form of a flocculent sludge in settling tanks. A part of this settled biomass, described as activated sludge is returned to the aeration tank and the remaining forms waste or excess sludge.

SBR (Sequential Batch Reactor)

The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process is a sequential suspended growth (activated sludge) process in which all major steps occur in the same tank in sequential order. The complete five phases take place in single reactor thus reduces the footprint. SBRs can be designed and operated to enhance removal of nitrogen, phosphorus, and ammonia, in addition to removing TSS and BOD. The five stages of SBR are:

·         FILL: Wastewater fills the tank, mixing with biomass that settles during the previous cycle.

·         REACT: Air is added to the tank to aid biological growth and felicitate waste reduction.

·         SETTLE: Mixing and Aeration stop during this stage to allow solids to settle.

·         DRAW: Clarified effluent is discharged.

·         IDLE: Sludge can be removed during this stage. 


·         Lower installed cost than "Conventional" methods

·         Less land space required for SBR treatment plants

·         Consistent high-quality, low nutrient level effluent

·         Tolerates wide swings in flow and organic loading

·         No clarifier required

·         Better control over filamentous growth and settling problems

·         Nutrient removal without chemicals - nitrification and de-nitrification, phosphate removal

·         Simple sludge process management

·         Less equipment to service and maintain

·         Existing plants can often be converted to SBR process

·         Less operator attention than "Conventional" processes

 MBR (Membrane Bioreactors)

Membrane Bioreactor is a systems integrating biological degradation of waste products with membrane filtration. They have proven effective in removing organic and inorganic contaminants as well as biological entities from wastewater. Membrane bioreactor is the combination of a membrane process like microfiltration or ultrafiltration with a suspended growth bioreactor, and is widely used for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment.

The MBR system are available as Integrated Submerged Type & External Module Type and the advantages include good control of biological activity, high quality effluent free of bacteria and pathogens, smaller plant size, and higher organic loading rates.  


 MBBR (Moving Bed Bio Reactor)

Moving Bed Bio-Reactor (MBBR) processes improve reliability, simplify operation, and require less space than traditional wastewater treatment systems (ASP).

MBBR technology employs thousands of polyethylene biofilm carriers operating in mixed motion within an aerated wastewater treatment basin. Each individual bio carrier increases productivity through providing protected surface area to support the growth of heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria within its cells. It is this high-density population of bacteria that achieves high-rate biodegradation within the system, while also offering process reliability and ease of operation. This technology provides cost-effective treatment with minimal maintenance since MBBR processes self-maintain an optimum level of productive biofilm. Additionally, the biofilm attached to the mobile bio carriers within the system automatically responds to load fluctuations.


1.       Compact Design – A fraction of the size of ASP

2.       Expandable – Capacity could be easily upgraded by increasing the biofilm carrier

3.       No Return activated sludge stream required

4.       High Response to shock load

5.       Minimal maintenance of MLSS

Moving Bed Bio-Reactor systems deliver a flexible, cost-effective, and easy-to-operate means to address current wastewater requirements and the expandability to meet future loads or more stringent discharge requirements within a compact design.

Submerged Aerobic Fixed Film Technology (SAFF)

Submerged Aerobic Fixed Film Reactor is primarily used in residential and commercial complexes. This equipment primarily works on the three stages that are Primary Settlement, Secondary Treatment and Final Settlement / Clarification. SAFF Technology is one of the simplest and most cost effective methods of commercial and residential sewage sanitation / waste water treatment, particularly for small to medium sized treatment plants. A well built Submerged Aerated Filter plant has no moving parts within its main process zones, any functional items will be positioned to access easily without disrupting the ongoing sewage treatment.

The three stages of SAFF are:

Primary Settlement

Here the larger solids settle into the bottom of the primary tank and are removed periodically as sludge, Also, the materials floating upwards is removed by a screening method.

·         Secondary Treatment


     Aeration of wastewater with flocculating biological growth, followed by separation of treated wastewater from this growth. Aeration is done intermittently using diffusers which helps in reducing BOD/COD of the sewage. Fluidized suspended media circulates within a basin, and the bio-media is engineered in a wheel shape & is buoyant, allowing water flow to circulate the media throughout the vessel. It has High Bio-Surface area (300-850m2/m3) and the bio media design allows aggressive sloughing action thus maintaining a productive layer  of biological growth.


        Final Settlement / Clarification

   Where remaining solids (Humus) are settled out of the biological treated effluent.


·         Clog free operation

·         High bio surface area

·         Make bio system extremely compact

·         No sludge return system needed

·         Effective under extremely high BOD loading

·         Less sensitivity to shock loading

·         High effluent quality

·         Small footprint, simplicity of design, installation & operation

·         Design flexibility, easy affordable up-gradation

·         No backwash needed & low maintenance

·         Easily retained media with long life




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Why Sequencing Batch Reaction, Why not Extended Aeration System ? Posted on 10/11/2016

1. Difference between Sequencing Batch Reaction & Extended Aeration System. 2. Why Sequencing Batch Reaction ? 3. Why Extended Aeration System ? 4. Why Sequencing Batch Reaction, Why not Extended Aeration System ? 5. Which Technology is the best as per today's requirement.

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