Dowel Pin

A dowel is a solid cylindrical rod, usually made from wood, plastic, or metal. In its original manufactured form, a dowel is called a dowel rod. Dowel rods are often cut into short lengths called dowel pins.

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Detailed Description for Dowel Pin

Dowel pins are industrial fasteners that are used to join two or more items together. They are short, cylindrical rods made of various materials including wood, metal and plastic. Dowel pins can be tapered, slotted, grooved, or otherwise altered to change its mechanical properties. They are commonly available in imperial or metric units.

Dowel pins do not possess moving or actuated components. Dowel pins' mechanical capabilities stem from their high coefficient of friction, and any adhesive that may be applied when they are inserted into press-fit predrilled holes. They must be rigid while in use so they are capable of keeping the assembled parts aligned without further hardware fastening. For a firm fit, the hole should be exactly the same size or slightly smaller than the dowel's diameter. Dowel pins typically have working loads identified, with a breaking strength measured as when a double shear occurs. 

 Common metal materials for dowel pin manufacture include:

·         Aluminium, which is light, ductile, conductive, and very resistance to oxidation.

·         Brass is strong, ductile, conductive, corrosion resistant, and demonstrates low magnetic permeability.

·         Stainless steel has a high pressure rating, and is chemical and corrosion resistant.

·         Steel that is hardened and ground is compacted to produce a very hard, though brittle, metal. It has gone through a hardening process such as quenching or induction. Unhardened steel is more malleable, but is still suitable for many applications.

·         Titanium is strong, with good temperature and corrosion resistance.

·         The wooden dowel rod used in woodworking applications is commonly cut into dowel pins, which are used to reinforce joints and support shelves and other components in cabinet making. Some woodworkers make their own dowel pins, while others purchase dowel pins pre-cut to the required length and diameter.

When dowels are glued into blind holes, a very common case in dowel-based joinery, there must be a path for air and excess glue to escape when the dowel is pressed into place. If no provision is made to relieve the hydraulic pressure of air and glue, hammering the dowel home or clamping the joint can split the wood. An old solution to this problem is to plane a flat on the side of the dowel; some sources suggest planning the flat on the rough stock before the final shaping of the round dowel. Some dowel plates solve the problem by cutting a groove in the side of the dowel as it is forced through; this is done by a groove screw, a pointed screw intruding from the side into the dowel cutting opening. Some dowel pins are fluted with multiple parallel grooves along their length to serve the same purpose.

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