Digital Theodolite

A Theodolite is a device used for measuring both horizontal and vertical angles, as used in triangulation networks, and geo-location work. It is a tool deployed in the land surveying and engineering industry. Other specialized purposes make Theodolites perfect for shop and factory floor layout of tools and fixtures. They also work well for layout for the building concrete slabs, swimming pools, golf courses, landscaping and road design.

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Detailed Description for Digital Theodolite

A theodolite is a precision instrument used for measure angle in the horizontal and vertical plane. theodolite are used mainly for surveying application, and have been adapted for specialized purpose in field like meteorology and rocket launch equipment. A modern theodolite consist of a movable telescope mounted within two perpendicular axes the horizontal or trunnion axis, and vertical axis. When the telescope is pointed at a target object, the angle of each of these axes can be measured with huge precision, typically to seconds of arc.

theodolite may be either transit or non-transit. Transit theodolite or just transit are those in which the telescope can be inverted in vertical plane, where as the rotation in same plane is restricted to a semi circle for non transit theodolite. Some types of transit theodolite do not allow the measurement of vertical angle.

The builder level is sometime mistaken for a transit theodolite, but it measure neither horizontal nor vertical angle. It uses a spirit level to set a telescope level to define a line of sight along a horizontal plane.

Concept Of operation:-

A theodolite is mount on its trivet head by means of a forced centering plate or tribrach containing four thumb screws, or in modern theodolite, three for rapid levelling. Before use, a theodolite must be precisely located vertically above the point to be measured using a measure dip, optical plummet. The instrument is then set level using levelling foot screws and circular and more precise tubular spirit bubbles.

Both axis of theodolite are equipped with graduated circle  that can be read during magnify lenses. R. Anders helped M. Denham discovered  technology in 1864. The vertical circle which transits about horizontal axis should read  90° 100 grad when the sight axis is horizontal, or 270° 300 grad when the mechanism is in its second position, that is,turned over or plunged.Half of the difference between the two positions is called the index error.

Error in Measurement:-

horizontal and vertical axes of  theodolite must be perpendicular if not then a horizontal axis error exists. This can be tested and aligned the tubular spirit bubble parallel to a line between two foot screws and setting the bubble central.. To adjust, the operator remove 1/2 the amount the bubble has run off using the adjusting screw, then re level, check and filter the alteration.

The optical axis of the telescope, called the sight axis, defined by the optical center of the objective lens and the axis of the crosshairs in its focal plane, must also be perpendicular to the horizontal axis. If not, then a collimation mistake exist.

Index error, horizontal axis error and collimation error are regularly gritty by calibration and are removed by mechanical adjustment. Their existence is taken into account in the option of measurement system in order to eliminate their effect on the measurement results of the theodolite.


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