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Milling is a technique of generating machined surfaces by gradually removing a pre-programmed amount of material from the work piece. The work piece is advanced at a slow rate towards the cutter which is rotating at high speeds. Milling cutters are available in different sizes and shapes to suit the choice of application of the user. They are made from high speed steel (HSS) providing a carbide tip.
The milling cutters are provided with one or more teeth. The teeth help in cutting the material. As the teeth penetrate the material the rotation of the cutter sends chips up the flute. The flute is a helical groove that allows the cut waste to slide away from the object of interest. The helical design of the groove allows the teeth to enter the material gradually without excessive vibrations.
1. Flute: The flutes are deep helical grooves running up the cutter where the sharp blades run along the edge known as tooth.
2. Coating: Right kind of coating can have a great influence on the cutting process by increasing the speed and life of the cutter. Polycrystalline diamond is a hard coating that is given to the cutters to withstand high abrasive wear.
3. Shank: It is a cylindrical non-fluted part of the tool that is used to locate itself into the tool holder.
• End mills: They have two helical grooves mounted vertically. They cut with their ends and sides.
• Solid end mills: They have two- four flutes and cutting edges on their ends and periphery.
• Special end mills: Ball end mills come in different diameters ranging from 1/30 to 2 inches in both single and double ended milling type. For example, woodruff key-seat cutters, corner rounding cutters and dovetail cutters.
• Face mills: They are used to cut only with their ends. This leads to a creation of flat face on the work piece.
• Shell mills: They have end cutters as well as side cutters that mount onto an arbour.
• Angle cutters: It consists of sharp edges that lie on the periphery of the cone rather than on the cylinder.
• Form mill: It is a peripheral cutter whose edge is shaped to produce a special configuration.
• Light duty plain mill: they are general purpose cutters that come with narrow straight teeth.
• Heavy duty plain mill: They have the same configuration as the light mill but are used for higher cutting rates. Here the teeth are widely spaces and the helical angle is increased to 45 degree.
• Staggered tooth side mill: These cutters come with staggered teeth so that every tooth cuts on the given side of slot. Thus allowing a deep heavy duty cuts.
• Capability of machining large and unbalanced parts which cannot be rotated at high speeds.
• To obtain complex surface shape and eccentric parts.
• Most suitable for thin walled parts and materials with elements protruding along its edge.
Type of the material used… Posted on 8/18/2016
For milling softer materials one must consider cobalt or carbide milling cutters since they give increased speeds and output up to 40% whereas High speed steel can be used for hard surfaces.
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